Concept and definition of ecosystem, ecology at community level, ecological classification of habitat types, terrestrial and aquatic biomass, specific features of each, biotic components of habitat. Natural destruction factors of communities, success of community interaction, natural cycle, dynamics of population.
Practicals: to include among others community and population studies of each species in a habitat.

The course introduces students to the origin of life, the organization of life and cell growth and development. Major topics covered include: History and present trends in cell biology. Reproduction, cell division, cell differentiation and growth of cells. A brief study of the molecular basis of cell structure and development. Organelles. Proteins and nucleic acids. The genetic code and its relationship to cellular function.


The course exposes the students to different techniques employed in biological sciences . Topics covered include: Preparation of microscope slides, biological drawings, microtomy, colorimetry, photometry, cytological techniques, chromatography, collection and preservation of biological specimens, herbarium techniques. Laboratory experiments are also included.